The Clarke University presentation was given to students on August 23, 2004. Along with this presentation we toured the CMMCP facility, and went on site visits to several locations nearby where surveillance was being conducted for adult mosquitoes. Both CDC light traps and gravid traps were observed in operation.


Click here to download the complete PowerPoint® presentation (16Mb): student seminar.ppt (Note: when prompted to enter a password to modify, click the “Read Only” button)



Scroll down on this page for an .html narrative alongside the PowerPoint® slides in .jpg format.



This slide outlined the topics for this presentation.

Title page

A listing of the 9 mosquito control districts in Mass.

A color-coded map showing the locations of the 9 mosquito districts. This map is also on our website at

A more detailed map showing the CMMCP service area (in yellow). The website also has this map at:

The 5 components of a full mosquito control program. Additional information on these services is available at

Surveillance traps used at CMMCP in 2004. For more information try this link:


The Red X’s and GPS coordinates are the locations of the Co2 baited CDC light traps used to sample Cs. melanura, a vector of EEE. The location is the Great Cedar Swamp, straddling the Westboro and Hopkinton town lines. 5 traps were used in 2004, and all samples sent to Mass. DPH for testing were negative for mosquito-borne viruses.

Types of mosquito-borne viruses (call arboviruses) our surveillance focuses on at this time.

The Public Education page, with our PR brochure in yellow. Each year we give talks to schoolchildren, mostly K-8.

2 types of wetlands restoration, hand and mechanized. Restoration of degraded ditch systems is an integral part of our program, reducing and sometimes eliminating mosquito breeding in an area, without the need for continued larval surveillance and pesticide applications. For more information check here:

Before and after photos of one of our restoration projects, this one was in Hopedale in 1998. This site has been monitored for maintenance and since this project was completed no applications were necessary for larval mosquitoes.

The Larval Control title page. The Technician in the picture to the left is sampling the swamp, a procedure called dipping. If he identified sufficient numbers of mosquito larvae, a bacterial product called Bti is applied. This bacterium is specific to mosquitoes, and dos little to no negative impact on other aquatic organisms. For more information on Bti check here:


The photo on the right side is a close up of 3 mosquito larvae. Each larva goes though 4 stages, called “instars” until it becomes a pupa, the final aquatic stage before emergence as an adult. Here is more information on mosquito larvae:

 & mosquito pupae:


The different control products in use at CMMCP for larvae & pupae – more information is here:


To the left, a truck utilizing an ULV spray rig – ULV stands for Ultra Low Volume, a technique used to dispense fine, dilute droplets of product to minimize negative effects on non-target organisms.


The picture to the right is an adult mosquito, a sight many of us are familiar with.

Information on the product used for adulticiding, also called spraying. More information is here:

The Mosquito-borne Diseases title page

A brief introduction on West Nile Virus – a search on Google or any search engine for WNV will result in many websites devoted to this topic.

A graphic from the CDC website here showing locations of WNV in 2003.

WNV information from the CMMCP service area in 2003.

Another graphic from the CDC website showing WNV activity as of the date of the presentation.

An explanation for the WNV virus cycle.

An updated Summary of WNV in 2004 for Massachusetts.

An introduction to Eastern Equine Encephalitis, EEE

An updated summary of EEE for 2004 in Massachusetts.

An explanation of the EEE cycle, similar to WNV.

The Mosquito Biology title page

The 4 stages of the mosquito’s life cycle. Information on the mosquito life cycle can be found at


The graphic shows a female Culex mosquitoes laying an egg raft on top of the water. The possible locations of eggs described here vary by species and can be very specific for each type of mosquito.

A narrative on mosquito larvae – note the close up picture to the right. Most larvae will darken in a few hours after hatching from the egg.

A narrative on the mosquito pupae. This stage is comparable to the cocoon stage of the butterfly. Mosquito pupae are very active and are easily disturbed and can be difficult to survey.

A narrative on the mosquito adult – the graphic shows a mosquito emerging from the pupal case. Once emerged, it will need to rest for a time to dry its wings. it will usually then mate and seek a food source, often plant nectar. The blood the female seeks is for egg production, the male mosquito does not seek bloodmeals.

The Mosquito Habitat title page.

Mosquito habitat types. These habitats can be very species specific, and production from these areas can depend on time of year, salinity, PH factors, and other environmental considerations.

A narrative on one common type of habitat, retention/detention ponds and their corresponding species. These habitats are being created in many places, and are a component of the Federal Stormwater regulations.

A common sight in Mass., a retention basin created in 2001. Note the emergent vegetation (Cattail, Typhus spp.) in the center and near the edges which will alter this habitat type from open water or floodwater to emergent vegetation. The species found in this area will also change over time.

A narrative on the merits of retention/detention ponds.

Associated disadvantages from these areas commonly encountered in Central Mass. due to poor engineering designs and/or poor maintenance.

A narrative on vernal pools, common in our area.

2 pictures of the same area, about 6 months apart.

Mosquito species commonly found in vernal pools or reflood (areas that are wet then dry down in a season) areas.

An explanation of reflood areas

Another habitat type common in our area, and important in the EEE cycle.

Habitat type of a very specific species. Cq. perturbans.

A typical Cattail marsh in Central Mass.

Narrative on the degraded ditch system mosquito habitat – often a prime candidate for the wetlands restoration part of our program.

A ditch clogged with debris and emergent vegetation. In large rain events this system will overflow its banks and create stagnant areas on the sides that do not drain properly, thus creating a prime mosquito habitat.

Species found in treeholes, but more commonly in containers in peoples yards – can, tires, kiddie pools, etc.

Not a habitat found in Central Mass., but an area with its own unique species associated with it. Our surveillance will show isolated specimens each year from this type of habitat. – these species can be strong flyers and quite a nuisance on the coastal areas.

Invasive species are a common problem in our area – the Restoration page at  has information if you scroll down.


Lythrum salicaria – click for more information



Phragmites australis – click for more information




Any questions on this presentation please call Tim Deschamps at (508) 393-3055 or e-mail at