The CDC (Centers for Disease Control & Prevention) recommends the use of products containing active ingredients which have been registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use as repellents applied to skin and clothing.
Of the products registered with the EPA, those containing DEET, picaridin, IR3535, and some oil of lemon eucalyptus and para-menthane-diol products provide longer-lasting protection.
EPA registration means that EPA does not expect the product to cause adverse effects to human health or the environment when used according to the label.
Helpful links about insect repellents:
- Massachusetts Public Health Fact Sheet: Mosquito Repellents
- Massachusetts Public Health Fact Sheet: Tick Repellents
- Centers for Disease Control & Prevention: Prevent Mosquito Bites
- Environmental Protection Agency: Find the Repellent that is Right for You
- Environmental protection Agency: Regulation of Skin-Applied Repellents
- Environmental Protection Agency: New Pesticide Fact Sheet
- National Pesticide Information Center: Picaridin General Fact Sheet
- National Pesticide Information Center Picaridin Technical Fact Sheet
- Choosing a Natural Repellent Product by Daniel A. Strickman
- Comparative Efficacy of Insect Repellents Against Mosquito Bites by the Massachusetts Medical Society
- American College of Physicians: Mosquitoes and Mosquito Repellents: A Clinician's Guide